In 2000, Microsoft introduced C#, pronounced C Sharp, an object-oriented programming language integrated into the .NET Framework. C# is designed to be simple, efficient, and versatile, making it a popular choice for developing a variety of applications, including desktop, web, and mobile applications.

The .NET Framework is a comprehensive software development framework that offers a runtime environment along with a robust set of libraries and tools for creating and executing applications on Windows platforms. Supporting multiple programming languages, including C#, the .NET Framework facilitates the development of diverse application types, such as desktop, web, mobile, and gaming applications.

The basic architecture of the .NET Framework comprises two essential components:

Common Language Runtime (CLR):

The CLR is the execution engine for .NET-supported languages, managing the execution of code. When an application is executed, the CLR loads necessary libraries and converts the code into machine code, which the computer’s processor can run. Additionally, the CLR provides crucial services like automatic memory management and security, ensuring applications are both reliable and secure.

.NET Framework Class Library (FCL):

The FCL is a vast collection of pre-built functions and classes available for creating a wide range of applications. It encompasses various namespaces that provide access to classes for features such as file I/O, networking, database access, and graphical user interface (GUI) design. The library is complemented by development tools like the Visual Studio integrated development environment (IDE), which offers a comprehensive set of tools for developing and debugging .NET applications.

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